In fluid mechanics we learn about the viscosity of a fluid. In an intuitive way we know that viscosity has to do with the rate at which a fluid will flow. For instance water will flow much more easily and quickly out of a cup than something like oil or honey. Therefore we would say that honey is more viscous. In engineering terms, we define viscosity (more precisely, absolute or dynamic viscosity) as
the constant of proportionality between the shearing stress and the rate of shearing strain.
With solids we talk about the shear modulus of elasticity, G, as being the slope or constant of proportionality between the shear stress and shear strain. Since fluids will theoretically infinitely shear strain under a constant shear stress (which is the definition of a fluid) we must compare shear strain rate instead of shear strain. And much like with solids, the slope of the graph is often a straight line and thus a constant. This slope or constant is the absolute viscosity. Fluids with this linear type of behavior are called Newtonian Fluids.
Now this is where the interesting part comes in. Not all fluids act in this nice neat fashion. This other group of fluids are called Non-Newtonian Fluids and there are two categories. The slope of the shear stress / shear strain rate graph for Non-Newtonian Fluids is called the apparent viscosity and it changes at every point along the graph. The first group of Non-Newtonian Fluids are called shear thinning fluids or pseudoplastic fluids. With shear thinning fluids, the apparent viscosity decreases as you increase the rate of shear strain. In other words, the faster you push through it, the easier it will be. Latex paint is an example of this type of fluid. The second group is called shear thickening fluids or dilatants. These are the opposite of the other group in that the faster you push through the fluid, the harder it is to push. This results in the odd but fascinating phenomenon you can see in the following video clips.
Walking on Fluid
Make Your Own Non-Newtonian Fluid at Home
The study of kinematics is the study of the relationships between different elements of motion like position, velocity, and acceleration. Kinematics does not consider the forces that cause these motions, only the motions themselves. In this discussion I will use the symbol s for position, v for velocity, and a for acceleration. If a body travels from one position to another position and that trip starts at one time and ends at another time, we can write the average velocity for the body as:
However realize that this is the average velocity. The velocity at any point during the trip can vary because we are only considering the beginning and ending positions and times. To find the instantaneous velocity we use the same theory but we use calculus to express the change in position with respect to time using differential elements.
In much the same way we can express the average and instantaneous acceleration of a body as follows.
Using separation of variables on the last equation we can develop an integral relationship between acceleration, velocity, and time.
This says the ending velocity is equal to the beginning velocity plus the integral of the acceleration with respect to time. If the acceleration is constant through the entire time period we get:
Next let’s do the same separation and integration to the position and velocity differential equation.
Now we could proceed and find the relationship between position and constant velocity as we did above, but I think that step is obvious and I leave that to the reader. Here I want to make a substitution and come up with a different relationship. We will substitute the above equation relating velocity and constant acceleration into the last integral as follows.
This last equation can tell us the final position of a body if we know the original position, the original velocity, the constant acceleration rate, and the time of the trip.
Finally we will develop one more kinematic formula. We start again with the differential equation relating velocity and position. Then we will use a chain rule and variable separation with integration to reach our destination.
Notice that this equation does not require knowledge about the time. All we need is the original velocity, the constant acceleration rate, and the change in the position to find the final velocity.
I hope you see from this discussion that kinematics is a very simple, fundamental exercise in mechanics. If we boil all of this down, we can solve any problem in general by simply applying the principles of calculus to the two fundamental differential equations:
to formulate whatever relationship we need.